Propulsion unit using asymmetrical (gradient) electric capacitors
by Alexander V. Frolov

This technology can provide acitve (non-reactive) propuslion force and very low input power for any level of output force. It can be used in aeropace to correct space trajectory of sattelites to increae their life time, for the first step of development of the technology. Powerful effects can be applied in aerospace equipment as main propulson unit instead of turbines and other engines.

The electrogravitics was investigated by T.T.Brown in 1927 - 1965 and his original work is very interesting. Modern experimenting with asymmetrical electric capacitors become popular in 1990th as "Lifter" topic but it is very primitive and mainly it is simple ionization effects. We offer other way.

History of this research and most perspective direction of its development

Some experiments were produced in my laboratory from 1994. The idea is to get asymmetry in the vectors of the field components. For example, in classical plane capacitor the plates are in attraction but the forces are contradicted. In T-shape capacitor two electrodes are placed in the same flat.


Electrodes are separated by "dielectric wall" to exclude electric discharge along minimal distance way between electrodes. The electric field structure is configured here to create co-directed electrostatic forces for both electrodes. There are many similar technical solutions. Here is my article of 1994, published in USA and Canada "To discover a solution for a non-zero unilateral resultant force, all we need is to note that the force line of the potential field is always perpendicular to the charged surface and take advantage of that fact." Also comments by Thomas E. Bearden to this my article are very interesting.

Some experiments in Frolov's home laboratory, 1999

Small changes of weight of T-capacitor can be detected with simple balance scales. Voltage is 10 kV. Presented to Toyota aerospace division experts in 1998.

Theoretical aspects also were developed by Professor Nassikas, University of Larissa, Greece. His patent and publications are including reference to Frolov's capacitor. You can read it here.

Then the research group (Jean Louis Naudin) from France also experimentally confirmed this principle (photos below). They named this asymmetrical capacitor as "Frolov's Hat"

The technology also was presented by Transdimensional Technologies, USA On July 6, 2001

Development of the technology
This technology of spatial asymmetry is workable but it is very complex for commercial application due to its high voltage equipment. You can try to calculate the size and voltage of the air asymmetrical capacitor of 1,000 kg weight (I made the calculations, they are not perspective). So, we need other solution. In 1995 I proposed the LIQUID DIELECTRIC version of the same asymmetrical capacitor. We produced simplest tests in Faraday Lab Ltd. Some weight changes were detected in experiments of  Sept. 2001 with asymmetrical capacitor (the jar and liquid oil dielectric):


Force about 0,4 gram was detected. Voltage 10 KV was applied to the electrodes. Measurements were made with HL400EX digital scales. Development of idea is to get miniaturization and low voltage battery of similar elements to get powerful propuslion effects for low voltage and small current input source.

Most perspective is research on SOLID STATE GRADIENTAL DIELECTRIC capacitors. The project is very complex for our small private laboratory since the problem is to get gradual changes of dielectrical permittivity in dielectrical material between two plates of flat capacitor.


Some important notes on "Electric interaction principles": Electric interaction is result of aether pressure gradient around of each interacting body (by Alexander V. Frolov)


This understanding allows to design single-terminal electrical propulsion units. We are sure in great commercial perspectives of this work and we continue the experimenting on the topic. The calculations seems to be very good

Estimated force effects are 80 000 kg lifting force for 100 square meters surface of capacitor, or for 1 m3 propulsion unit. It is important to note: it is not ionization effects and we can use low power source of potential difference to charge the capacitor and get force. (In details please read russian page here)

Simplest case is two-layers dielectric


Experiment is described here


Patent application in Russian Patent Office #2004105178 was stopped and we are interested to find partner to patent this method in other patent application.

Practical application also is possible in power engineering. T.T.Brown proposed to use this low energy input method to produce force in rotor of electrogenerator and by his patent of 1927 we can estimate efficiency as 1000 to 1 for good quality dielectric (small dielectrical losses).

Please contact me for business collaboration, development of technology and patenting.


Alexander V. Frolov
Faraday Ltd. company

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