Reactionless Propulsion and Active Force

Alexander V. Frolov
St.Petersburg, Russia


    The goal of the report is demonstration of  some technological ways, which allow to create active force. This force don't require reactive mass flow. The active force can be applied to many aerodynamics systems and it is result of the pressure difference from the medium to the system. Usually the air or water are the medium. By analogy, the space-time itself can be considered as some medium of interaction.


    Let's note some known research programs. There are known mechanical systems to get propulsion: the  gyroscope precession, gyroscopes of alternating radius and nonlinear vibrations gyroscopes . There is also method:  velocity of rotation of the mass can be changing in different parts of the trajectory that produce some inner gradient of pressure between the rotor and the stator. Some mechanical systems use special vortex (liquid or air). In some electromechanical systems electrically charged rotor is used to create propulsion force. There are known electromagnetic systems to use Lorenz force, magneto-hydro-dynamical effect, Hall current. Some antigravitaton effects are investigated in  so called Hooper's bi-directional coils and in the flat current systems (Mobius loop). There is old idea is to use diamagnetic vapor, which is accelerated in the permanent magnet field.

    High electric potential systems are known by Tesla and T.T.Brown research work. The Biffeld-Brown effect describes the active force, which is created in flat capacitor to the positive plate side if the voltage is above 50 kV. Dr. Brown did not explain the reason of the force, so we have chance to suppose that this force is result of the asymmetry in orbital motion of the electrons in the dielectric atoms due to the electric field between the plates. The asymmetry lead to centrifugal force gradient and non-zero linear component of this force.

    There are also some research program on superconductivity – gravitation connection.

    Special case is thermo-gravitation propulsion technologies. Fig.1.1 show plan of the experiment, which was described by Alexander Shegolev, Russia as weight changes in heated metal ball. In the top of the ball the cone part was removed to create non-zero total heat flow of this mass.

    Let's find the reason of this active (reactionless) force. There is  known fact that interaction between atom or molecule and space-time demonstrated as chaotic oscillations or movements those are considered as heat processes in matter. In material objects of special shape (like the ball above) the vector sum of such sort oscillations is not equal to zero so the object should get some impulse (moment) in the direction, which is defined by its shape. The nature of this moment is the same like the nature of chaotical impulses those are received by any atom directly from the space-time (from the ether).

    Fig.1.2. is plan of another thermogravitation closed system design: the reactive flow is transformed by some converter. One of many versions for it is the cooling of the flow by means of special vortex process. By analogy with Fig.1.1  the active force is result of non-zero vector sum of the heat processes of each particle of the matter.

    To continue we have to make some supposition about the nature of the heat energy. According to Pavel D. Ouspensky (Russian philosopher) and Nikolay A. Kozyrev (Russian astrophysics) there is energy exchange between particle of matter and so called "flow of time" and it is working physical mechanism for any really existing material particle. In other words, it is the physical mechanism of existence of the mass-matter in the time flow. By P.D.Ouspensky the heat chaotical oscillations are the result of this energy exchange. By N.A.Kozyrev, the stars have not any inner source of energy but they are working like some kind of machine, which transform the energy of the  "flow of time" into the energy of heat radiation (electromagnetic waves). So, we can make the conclusion:
The existence of any material system is defined by its energy exchange with "flow of time", which have certain velocity ( the rate of the process).

    Modern physics of vacuum is considering the notion about the "virtual particles". Old idea of ether particles also can explain the chaotical impulse interaction between real particle of matter and the vacuum (ether). The goal of our research  now can be formulated by the next way: Active drive should be designed if the conditions of directed impulse energy exchange between real and virtual particles are created. The interaction takes place anytime and always but its total vector sum is zero due to spontaneous nature of the process. We have chance to order this process as directed heat flow in the mass of the drive, or to influence onto vacuum by means of force fields (electrical, for example) to order the processes of creation and annihilation of the virtual particles. Such sort influence is the reason of electrical interactions (it is original author's conception). Fig.2.1 show the repulsion and Fig.2.2. show the attraction modes for two electrically charged bodies.

     The first case, total sum intensity between bodies is less than intensity of each body. The second case, the intensity between bodies is more than intensity of electrical field of each body. In fact, each electrically charged body is surrounded by joint summary electrical field, which is not symmetrical and some gradient of electrical intensity is the reason of the Coulomb force. It is important to understand that there is direct interaction between body and surrounding space (ether) and the force is result of the gradient of the pressure like in the case of  aerodynamics. There is no needs in hypothesis about so called "long distance interaction" since all force interactions (electrical included) are simple mechanical effects in the ether.

    Lorenz force also can be considered as result of some gradient in the ether, Fig.2.3. since the pressure of the ether depend of the relative velocity (vector sum or difference) . The effect seems as the aerodynamics effect of the ether.

    Since the "intensity of the field" itself is the gradient of the potential,  so the gradient of the "intensity of the field" (grad E) is quality new notion, which lead to new physical effect, i.e. to the active non compensated force.

    Assuming the common nature of the considered examples we have to conclude: the basis of all  electrical and magnetic interactions is the energy exchange, which we considered for the case of the heat processes. The "field" means some area of space where the processes of interaction between the ether and the matter are not chaotical and spontaneous processes but they are ordered in some degree. More order means more value of the force. The field is equivalent of influence to processes of impulse interaction between material particle and ether (virtual) particle, that  make this interaction as directed (unidirectional) in some certain direction. By this way we are coming to the ether level mechanics, which is the basis of all electrical and gravitation phenomena, that is electrogravitational unification.

    Let's consider some design, where the properties of the matter are used to create the gradient described above. It is necessary note that there is no difference in principle between particle of matter and space area near of the particle that was mentioned by Faraday. They both are the ether. So, when we are working to make some special structure of the matter, we are working with space structure in the volume of this material object.

    The dielectric, Fig.3. is placed between metal plates and it is non-linear dielectric, since there is gradient of permittivity along the electrical intensity lines. Normally, the polarization of particles of the dielectric is symmetrical one in side of positive and negative plates. But in our case, the asymmetry of properties of the dielectric produces the asymmetry of polarization and there is some non compensated force in such sort capacitor. T.T.Brown patented similar idea in USA patent 3187206 of May 9, 1959. Simplest case is two-layers dielectric, Fig.4.1. where the force is created on the border between two different dielectrics. This force is known from 1927 and it is applied for industry as Johnsen-Raabek effect.

    Let's consider some experiment, Fig.4.2, produced by Alexander V. Frolov in 1997. The basis of the design is dielectric plate of permittivity 6 and second layer is dielectric plate of permittivity 1. The square of the plate is 100 square cm. The high potential (direct current) source is home-made design. The potential is about 10 kV. The calculated active force should be about 0.001 N or 150 mg that was detected by means of rotation torsion effect.

    Fig.5 is example of calculation for commercial aerospace project. The surface is taken as 100 square meters. The capacity of 1 cm radius sphere is 1 pF, so the calculated capacity of the system should be about 1 micro Farad. The special gradiental ceramics can be used that allow gradually increase the permittivity in the dielectric layer from 1 up to 80. The potential of 100 kV is quite real value. So, for this potential and this surface we'll get the electrical charge about 8 Coulomb. The difference of forces those are acting on the particles of this gradient dielectric should be about 80 ton.
    There is square function of force from the potential, so it is more useful to increase the potential than to increase the surface.
    In the conclusion let me say about necessity for true law of impulse conservation. The name of the report  "reactionless propulsion" means the absence of ordinary reactive flow of mass (rocket fuel). In the systems are considered above there is the reaction, since the velocity of system is changing and the compensation effect here is the change of the impulse of the "virtual particles" or "particles of the ether". So, the heat energy exchange balance we considered above should be changed and the ether becomes colder. It can be detected as 4-dimensional effects, since the time rate should be changed in local space around the active drive.

Alexander V. Frolov
June 20, 1998. St.-Petersburg

The paper was presented as the report on International Scientific Congress "Space, Time and Gravitation", St.-Petersburg, 1998. Published in the Proceedings of the Congress.

At first time short version of the paper was published in ELECTRIC SPACECRAFT,  Leicester, North Carolina 28748 USA, Issue 27,  1997 p.30-31.

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